Around half of Liechtenstein's surface area lies in the mountains (Central Alps), with the highest elevation the Grauspitz at 2599 metres above sea level. (The lowest elevation is Ruggeller Riet at 430m.) The Naafkopf mountain lies on the border between Liechtenstein, Austria and Switzerland. The peaks in the alpine areas are part of the Limestone Alps, while those belonging to the Fläscherberg and Eschnerberg chains are part of the Helvetic zone.
Tectogenesis, the history of tectonic movements, can be clearly observed in Liechtenstein. Rocks in the Principality are almost exclusively made up of sea sediments originally from the Ancient Mediterranean Sea that once stretched from Central Europe to Guinea.
The Rätikon chain (westerly end of the Rätikon) also forms the geological end of the Eastern Alps. The mountains are in part formed by a tectonic plate originally from the African region that has broken away and forced its way above and below the European sheets of the helveticum and flysch nappes. This tectogenesis includes folding, thrusting, expansion processes, the formation of fractures and tears as well as metamorphoses.
Today, the mountains in Liechtenstein comprise three layers with sediments from different seas. At the bottom lie the west alpine Limestone Alps, covered by a thick layer of flysch rocks. The top layer is the "Lechtaldecke" layer comprising several fault blocks.
Within the space of just a few hours, hikers walking from Eschnerberg via Maurerberg to the dolomite towers of the Three Sisters will pass through areas of ocean sediment from Ancient Europe and Ancient Africa.