The start of Liechtenstein's modern judicial system can be traced back to 1809. At that time the Landammann Constitution was replaced by two legal instances: the "Obergericht" in Vaduz (government) and the "Fürstliche Hofkanzlei" in Vienna (court of appeal). One on the conditions of joining the German Federation in 1815 was the introduction of a third legal instance, the "Oberlandesgericht". Division of power was carried out in 1871.
The 1921 constitution brought all legal instances to Liechtenstein. Those based in Vienna and Innsbruck were replaced by the Court of Appeal ("Obergericht") and the Supreme Court ("Oberster Gerichtshof") in Vaduz. Comprising five judges, the Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in Liechtenstein. Government decisions can be challenged at the Administrative Court. The State Court, set out in the 1921 Constitution, was created in 1925.
The amendment to the constitution carried out in 2003 also resulted in changes to the judicial system. Judges' responsibilities and the process of appointing judges were summarised and are now used for all courts according to the Act on the Appointment of Judges. Today the judicial system is made up of ordinary courts, the Administrative Court and the State Court.