The school system in Liechtenstein was continually developed throughout the 20th century. From 1937 onwards the country had its own grammar school ("Gymnasium"). The Marists, a Catholic religious congregation who were not welcome in Germany at the time, received permission to set up a grammar school in Vaduz, the Collegium Marianum.
The constitution stipulates that the state is responsible for schooling and the supervision of the entire education system. Private tuition is possible but must also be monitored by the state authorities. The first recorded mention of schools in Liechtenstein can be traced back to 1619 and the "Schulhaus" in Vaduz. A range of school foundations are also mentioned from 1653 onwards. Schooling was not made compulsory until the 19th century. From 1805 children aged 7 to 13 years were legally required to attend school. Municipalities had to create a "school fund" to be used to construct a school building. Those were the first steps on the path towards compulsory education in Liechtenstein, but the implementation of these measures remained difficult for some time. During the summer months the children were needed to help make hay and boys had to help take the cattle up to the high pastures for grazing.
In 1971 the school system was restructured. The national education authority ("Landesschulrat"), which had been in charge of education since it was created in 1869, was dissolved and responsibility passed to the government. The government in turn created the Office of Education in 1972. Today, children in Liechtenstein spend 2 years at kindergarten followed by 5 years at a primary school in their own municipality. After that they attend one of several different secondary schools (Oberschule, Realschule, Unterstufengymnasium) for 4 years. In 2004 a decree was introduced to summarise all other decrees on education matters issued since 1971. There are also a number of additional institutions to help pupils, including learning groups, psychological support, extra teaching for pupils with dyslexia, etc. Liechtenstein also has a number of private schools. Other options available include working and attending school at the same time ("Berufsmatura") and the chance to attend Swiss schools that are co-financed by Liechtenstein. One such school is the Neutechnikum Buchs.